v.1.0 January 1, 2006
This account of the Mughal army had been taken from the works of Francois Bernier, a French traveler who was attached to the court of Aurangzeb. His travels have been described in a book "Travels in the Mogul Empire, 1656 - 1668".
The troops under the King, both infantry and cavalry may be counted under two heads: one part was always near the kings person and the other was dispersed in the provinces.
Ranks and Organization
Hazari (lord of 1000 horses)
Dou Hazari (lord of 2000 horses)
Penge Hazari (lord of 5000 horses)
Deh Hazari (lord of 10,000 horses)
Douazdeh Hazari (lord of 12,000 horses, Aurangzeb’s eldest son held this title)
The Mughal army was primarily organized around the king. "Chain of command" seems to be a little known concept. Under the King, there were a number of Omrahs (Nobles). Each Omrah, according to the title they were awarded by the king, was in charge of maintaining a certain number of cavalry. Omrahs were dependent on the king for the upkeep of the army and their pay was in proportion to the number of horses under them.
Two horses were generally allowed to one trooper. The horses bore the markings of the Omrah.
The number of Omars was not fixed. At any given time, there were 25-30 Omrahs at court. There would be more omrahs in the provinces.
MUGHAL WAR ELEPHANT
THIS IS A 120mm SIZE RESIN MINATURE, FROM
www.histomin.com/linever/verasn/mpve1319.jpg. BY GEORGE GRASSE FOR VERLINDEN. CIMH HAS NO AFFILIATION WITH THE COMPANY, BUT IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN MINATURES, PLEASE VISIT THEIR SITE
The Mansabdars are horsemen with mansab pay. A mansab pay was not as much as that for a Omrah but still considerable. They were looked on as petty Omrahs. They acknowledge no other chief but the king. Under a Mansabdar there would be two, four or six service horses that would bear the kings markings. Their number was not fixed (under Akbar the number was fixed at 66) but they are more numerous than the Omrahs. They were under the command of the King and accepted only his superiority.
Rouzindars were cavaliers who were paid on a daily basis. They filled the inferior offices, mainly clerks and under-clerks.
The common horsemen served under the Omrahs. They are of two kinds; the first keep a pair of horses which bear the Omrahs mark on the thigh and the second only keep one horse. The former are more esteemed. There is no information on what was the rank hierarchy among these horsemen. There might have been none.
Most of the artillery men were foreigners – Portuguese, English, Dutch, Germans and French. Many of them were fugitives from Goa and the Dutch and English companies.
Most of them seem to be musketeers.
Artillery near the king
There were two kinds of artillery, Heavy artillery and artillery of the stirrup.
The Heavy artillery that escorted the king consisted of seventy pieces of cannon, mostly of brass each requiring twenty yoke of oxen to draw them. It also consisted of two to three hundred light camels who carried field piece the size of a double musket attached to the back of the animal.
The artillery of the stirrup consisted of fifty or sixty small brass field-pieces. Each piece was mounted on a handsomely painted carriage containing two ammunition chests, one behind and the other in front. The carriage was drawn by two horses and attended by a third horse as a relay. The light artillery was always meant to be near the kings person.
Army near the King (King's bodyguard)
Cavalry – 35 to 40 thousand
Infantry (musketeers, artillery and attendants) – 15 thousand
Army of the Provinces
Deccan – 20 to 25 thousand
Kabul – 12 to 15 thousand
Kashmir – more than 4 thousand
Bengal - ??
Infantry (musketeers, artillery and attendants) - ??